CHARACTERISTICS OF VINEYARDS
The term vine indicates a particular variety of vines, generally used for
the production of wine.
The vines can be distinguished by different shapes and colors of the grapes, of the bunch and of the leaves, as well as for different ripening periods and above all for the different organoleptic
characteristics of the wines obtained from them.
To identify a given vine, an accurate description of the shape of the leaves and of the fruits (bunches) is necessary; ampelophia deals with this. This systematic study began with the Latin agronomist Columella and developed with Pier de Crescenzi in the 13th century and above all with Count Odart who wrote the Universal Ampelography in the 19th century. Today, the most accurate DNA analyzes have been added to these accurate morphological descriptions, standardized by the Organization Internationale de la Vigne et du Vin.
Numerous wines are produced using mixtures of grapes of different vines, for example the wineChianti is produced mainly with Sangiovesea vines to which Canaiolo Malvasia or Trebbiano can be added.
In Italy the most widespread vines are Nebbiolo, Sangiovese, Barbera, Primitivo and Montepulciano; among the white wines the Trebbiano, the Vermentino, the Vernaccia and the Moscato. In the world it is estimated that there are about 5,000 cultivated vines. The most famous and widespread in the world (the so-called "International vines") are among the red Cabernet-Souvignon, Cabernet franc, Merlot, Pinot Noir, Zinfandel and Syrac; among the whites the Sauvignon, the Chardonay, the Muscat and the Riesling
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